National Water Mission - Jal Jeevan Mission
The main objective of the National Water Mission (NWM) is “conservation of water, minimizing wastage and ensuring its more equitable distribution.
India has been facing challenges with respect to sustaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with the global climate change threat. With the economy closely tied to its natural resources and climate- sensitive sectors such as agriculture, water and forestry, India is likely to face major threats because of the projected climatic changes. The government had identified the following impacts of major climate changes on water resources:
- Decline in glaciers in the Himalayas
- Drought situation in many parts of the country due to shortage in rainfall
- Increase in floods due to high intensity of rains
- Effect on groundwater quality and quantity
- Increased saline intrusion in coastal aquifers due to the rising sea levels
To combat this looming crisis, the National Action Plan on Climate Change released by the Prime Minister on June 30, 2008, outlined the principles and identified approaches to combat challenges due to climate change. To this end, the following eight national missions were identified:
- National Solar Mission
- National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
- National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
- National Water Mission
- National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
- National Mission for a Green India
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
- National Mission on Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change
The National Water Mission (NWM), under the aegis of the Ministry of Water Resources, is one of the eight missions being constituted under the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC). The NAPCC was launched by the Prime Minister in 2009 as a nation-wide effort to tackle climate change.
Volume I of this mission document gives an overview of the context, objectives, goals and strategies, monitoring and evaluation mechanism and institutional setup, plan of action/timelines, research development training and capacity building plan and fund requirements. It also gives details of the composition of various Advisory Boards, High-level Steering Committee, Technical Committee and Secretariat being setup to run the Mission.
Volume II of the mission document has reports of each of following six Sub-committees set up under the Mission, which are: 1. Policy and Institutional Framework, 2. Surface Water Management, 3. Ground Water Management, 4. Domestic and Industrial Water Management, 5. Efficient Use of Water for Various Purposes, 6. Basin-level Planning and Management.
Details of the objective, strategies, thrust activities, action points and functioning are listed below.
The overall objective of the NWM, as stated in the mission document is "conservation of water, minimizing wastage and ensuring its more equitable distribution both across and within States through integrated water resources development and management”.
The mission will adopt strategies which lead to an integrated plan for sustainable development and efficient management of water resources, with active participation of the stakeholders. It will identify and evaluate various development scenarios and management practices, on the basis of dependable projection of the impacts of climate change on water resources based on reliable data and information. It will also focus on integrated water resources planning and convergence between various water resources programmes.
Other identified strategies of the Mission also aim to review:
- National Water Policy
- Policy for financing water resources projects
- Criteria for design and planning for water resources projects.
Important Thrust Activities
Apart from the activities related to the identified strategies, some of the important thrust activities of the Mission will be:
- Research and studies on all aspects related to impact of climate change on water resources including quality aspects of water resources;
- Expeditious implementation of water resources projects particularly the multipurpose projects with carry over storages;
- Promotion of traditional system of water conservation;
- Intensive programme for ground water recharge in over-exploited areas;
- Incentivize for recycling of water including wastewater;
- Intensive capacity building and awareness programme including those for Panchayati Raj Institutions, urban local bodies and youth;
- Sensitization of elected representatives of over exploited area on dimensions of the problem and to orient investment under NREGA towards water conservation.
For achieving the objectives of the Mission, long-term sustained efforts both in terms of time bound completion of identified activities and ensuring the implementation of identified policies and enactment of necessary legislation through persuasion at different levels with the State Governments have been envisaged. The mission document identifies some of the following specific action points by 2012:
- Comprehensive water data base in public domain and assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources
- Review and establishment of network for collection of additional necessary data by March 2011.
- Development of water resources information system and bringing all information in public domain except the data of classified and sensitive nature by March 2012.
- Reassessment of basin wise water situation by March 2011.
- Impact of climate change on water resources based on reliable data by March 2012.
- Promotion of citizen and state actions for water conservation, augmentation and preservation
- Expeditious formulation of river interlinking projects by March 2012.
- Focused attention to over-exploited areas
- Intensive rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge programme to cover 1120 over-exploited, critical and semi-critical blocks during XI Plan and rest to be covered in XII Plan and 30% of the urban areas by March 2012.
- Intensive rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge programme to cover all the blocks by March 2017.
- Increasing water use efficiency at least by 20%
- Development of guidelines for incentivizing for recycling of water including wastewater by March 2011.
- Development of guidelines for incentives for water-neutral and water-positive technologies by March 2011.
- Development of guidelines for improving efficiency of urban water supply system by March 2011.
- Preparation of guidelines and manuals for mandatory water audit including those for drinking water purpose by March 2011.
- Review of financing policy and allocations by March 2010.
- Undertake Pilot studies in collaboration with States by March 2012.
- Promotion of basin level integrated water resources management
- Guidelines for different uses of water e.g., irrigation, drinking, industrial etc particularly in context of basin wise situations by March 2011.
- Review of National Water Policy and adoption of revised Policy by March 2013.
Functioning of the National Water Mission will be at a ministry level and inter-sectoral groups have been constituted combining resources from other relevant ministries, industry, academia and civil society. A dedicated Mission Secretariat has also been proposed.
National Water Mission Awards 2019
As per the mission document of the National Water Mission, the mission has 5 goals and 39 strategies. One of the strategies is to incentivize the organisations through awards. In line with this Mission has decided to confer ‘National Water Mission Awards’ in recognition of excellence achieved in sustainable water management, efficient use of water, and for excellence in water conservation.
The awards are given in the following 10 categories.
- Comprehensive water database in the public domain – Winners of this award are the Water Resources Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh and Irrigation and CAD Department, Government of Telangana.
- Assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources – Winners of this award are Environmental Planning and Coordination Organisation (EPCO), Department of Environment, Bhopal.
- Promotion of citizen and state action for water conservation, augmentation and preservation – Winners are the Water Resources Department, Government of Rajasthan and Department of Soil and Water conservation, Government of Punjab.
- Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas – Winners are Ambuja Cement Foundation, and State Ground Water Department, Government of Telangana.
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% – (Local individuals/farmer/citizens)
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% – (WUA, SHG’s, RWA’s)
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% (Public agencies – ULB’s/Cities, Govt organisations etc) – Winners are Department of Telangana Rural water supply and sanitation, Govt of Telangana for its Mission Bhagiratha.
- Increasing water use efficiency by 20% (Industries/Corporate) – Winners are Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Pvt Ltd, Guntur; Lalitpur Power Generation Company Ltd, Raymond UCO Denim Pvt Ltd.
- Promotion of basin level integrated water resources management – Winners are the Water Resources Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh
- Water Resources Department, Maharashtra.
Jal Shakti Abhiyan
It is a campaign launched by the Ministry of Jal Shakti with an emphasis on 1592 stressed blocks in 256 districts.
Why will Jal Jeevan Mission be a boost for rural economy?
Around Rs 70,000 crore a year will be spent on:
- The revival of water bodies
- Skill building, and
- Institution creation
Which is the Ministry responsible for its implementation?
What is the focus of Jal Shakti Abhiyan?
It will focus on 5 aspects:
- Water conservation and rainwater harvesting
- Renovation of traditional and other water bodies
- Reuse of water and recharging of structures
- Watershed development
- Intensive afforestation